Finland

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Finland
Finland.png
Capital:
Helsinki

Government Type:
Democratic Regime

Faction:
Neutral

Finland is a minor nation in northern Europe. It starts with a population of 3.67 million in both start dates.

Historical background[edit]

Flag of Finland Finland was a large yet culturally independent region of Flag of Sweden Sweden, first attached in the early 12th century. Finland was ceded to Russia after the Finnish War of 1809. Following the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 and Russia's internal turmoil, Finland declared itself independent. After a brief yet very destructive civil war in 1918, Finland was formally recognized as an independent nation.

After 20 years of independence, Finland was attacked by the Flag of Soviet Union Soviet Union in 1939, leading to the Winter War in 1939-1940. Against all odds, the badly outnumbered and under-equipped Finnish army was able to repel the Soviet attacks until a grand offensive in 1940 finally forced the country to surrender. Finland lost about 12.5% of its territory (equivalent to the states of Salla and Viipuri in-game) but survived as an independent nation, unlike the Baltic states which were annexed into the Soviet Union earlier.

In 1941, the Soviets bombed several Finnish cities, causing Finland to declare war on the Soviet Union, initiating the Continuation War. During said war, Finland fought as an ally to the Flag of German Reich German Reich and Flag of Italy Italy and invaded eastern Karelia (equivalent to the states of Onega and Olonets in-game) in addition to reconquering the territory lost during the Winter War. Despite pressure from Germany, Finland refused to attack Leningrad or sever the Murmansk railway and fought the Continuation War separately from Germany. The conquest of eastern Karelia and the seemingly unstoppable Wehrmacht led many in the Finnish fascist party IKL (Isänmaallinen Kansanliike) to dream of a "Greater Finland" encompassing perhaps even all of Scandinavia and the Baltic states.

In 1944, a Soviet grand offensive involving a force larger than the Allied invasion force of D-Day forced the Finns to fall back, but the attack was stopped roughly at the pre-1939 border and a ceasefire was agreed upon, shortly after. Finland signed an armistice with the Soviets in early 1945, making it the last European Axis country to surrender before the fall of Germany and after expelling the remaining Germans from Finnish soil in the Lapland War, the Second World War was finally over for Finland's part. A final peace treaty with the rest of the Allies was signed in 1947. Of note, Finland was the only Axis power that survived the Second World War without being occupied by a foreign power, be it during or after the war.

Events[edit]

Main article: Finnish events

National focus[edit]

Generic national focus tree.
Main article: Generic national focus tree

Flag of Finland Finland, lacking a unique national focus tree, uses the generic national focus tree instead.

The generic focus tree has 5 main branches:

  • Army Effort gives army experience and research bonuses to army research.
  • Aviation Effort gives air experience, builds air bases, and research bonuses to air research.
  • Naval Effort gives navy experience, builds naval dockyards, and research bonuses to navy research.
  • Industrial Effort builds civilian and military factories and grants extra research slots.
  • Political Effort gives the country choices on which political path they will take.

Technology[edit]

1936[edit]

Finland has researched:

  • 1922 Heavy Cruiser "Väinämöinen Class"
  • 1922 Submarines "Vetehinen Class"
  • 1936 Weapons 1
  • 1934 Artillery
  • 1936 Engineer Company
  • 1936 Recon Company

1939[edit]

Finland has researched:

  • 1922 Heavy Cruiser "Väinämöinen Class"
  • 1922 Submarines "Vetehinen Class"
  • 1936 Engineer Company
  • 1936 Recon Company
  • 1938 Support Weapons 2
  • 1938 Improved Infantry Equipment 1
  • 1936 Anti-Air
  • 1936 Interwar Artillery
  • 1936 Anti-Tank
  • Grand Battle Plan
  • Battlefleet Concentration
  • Submarine Operations
  • 1933 Fighter
  • 1936 Close Air Support
  • 1933 Bomber
  • Fighter Baiting
  • 1936 Radio Detection
  • 1938 Computing machine
  • 1939 Advanced Machine Tools
  • 1939 Dispersed Industry 3
  • 1939 Construction 3
  • Improved Oil Plant

Diplomacy[edit]

Alliances[edit]

In both start date scenarios, Flag of Finland Finland does not belong to any alliances.

Politics[edit]

National Spirit[edit]

Flag of Finland Finland starts with one National spirit:
Sisu icon
Sisu
  • Division Recovery Rate: +25%
  • Division attrition: −10%
  • Division Attack on core territory +20%
  • Division Defense on core territory +20%
Sisu is the uniquely Finnish expression for the resilience of the nation's people. Finland has faced harsh odds and will do so again.

Ideology[edit]

Flag of Finland Finland starts in 1936 as non-aligned and the ruling party is Suomen Keskusta. Leading them is Kyösti Kallio. Elections are held every three years.

In 1939, Finland starts as democratic. The ruling party is SDP (Suomen Sosialidemokraattinen Puolue). Leading them is Risto Heikki Ryti. Elections are held every three years.

Laws[edit]

Finland starts with following laws in both 1936 and 1939:

Conscription Law Economy Law Trade Law
Limited Conscription.png Limited Conscription
  • 2.5% Recruitable population
Civilian Economy.png Civilian Economy
  • 30% Consumer Goods factories
  • –30% Factory construction speed
  • +30% Factory (type) conversion cost
Export Focus.png Export Focus
  • 50% Resources to market
  • –5% Research time
  • +10% Factory/Dockyard output
  • +10% Construction speed

Ministers[edit]

Political Advisors

Advisor Type Effect Cost
Ralf Törngren Ideological Crusader Same ideology opinion: +100.0% 150 pp
Åke Henrik Gartz Captain of Industry Civilian factory construction speed: +10.0%, Infrastructure construction speed: +10.0%, Refinery construction speed: +10.0% 150 pp
Antti Hackzell Silent Workhorse Political Power Gain: +15.0% 150 pp
Otto Ville Kuusinen Communist Revolutionary Daily Communism Support +0.10, Gain event 'Communism on the Rise' 150 pp
Onni A. Hiltunen Democratic Reformer Daily Democracy Support +0.10, Gain event 'Move Towards Democracy' 150 pp
Bruno Salmiala Fascist Demagogue Daily Fascism Support +0.10, Gain event 'Fascism on the Rise' 150 pp

Economy[edit]

Factories 1936
Military factory
3 Military Factories
Naval dockyard
1 Naval Dockyard
Civilian factory
7 Civilian Factories
Factories 1939
Military factory
4 Military Factories
Naval dockyard
4 Naval Dockyards
Civilian factory
8 Civilian Factories

Resources[edit]

Flag of Finland Finland has very few resources.

Total Resources 1936
Oil.png
Oil
Rubber.png
Rubber
Steel.png
Steel
Aluminum.png
Aluminum
Tungsten.png
Tungsten
Chromium.png
Chromium
0 0 12 0 0 2

These numbers represent the produced resources, depending on trade law a certain amount may be traded away.

Military[edit]

Flag of Finland Finland starts with a strong army compared to the other Nordic countries, but it is small compared to the major powers.

Army[edit]

Flag of Finland Finland starts in 1936 with 1 cavalry (2 cavalry battalions + recon company) and 17 infantry divisions. 10 ("Jalkaväkidivisioona") of them include 6 infantry battalions and an engineer company, and the other 7 divisions ("Erillinen Prikaati") include 3 infantry battalions and an engineer company.

In 1939, Finland starts with all the same divisions, but with one less "Erillinen Prikaati" division.

Navy[edit]

In 1936 and 1939, Flag of Finland Finland's navy consists of 2 fleets. "Rannikkolaivue" includes 2 heavy cruisers. "Sukellusvenelaivue" consists of 4 submarines.

Air Force[edit]

In 1936, Flag of Finland Finland does not have an air force.

In 1939, Finland has:

  • 28 Close Air Support
  • 45 Fighters

Strategies and Guides[edit]

[UNDER CONSTRUCTION] This section is currently undergoing a major overhaul and may appear messy and/or incomplete. If you wish to help in improving the content, feel free to add you own strategy, but remember that it must be a valid one in order to be accepted.

As a Neutrality Non-Aligned country, Finland can quite freely choose what ideology to follow, whether it be Fascism Fascism, Communism Communism or Democracy Democracy. Finland's Generic National Focus Tree allow for a lot of freedom in choices as opposed nations with more restrictive National Focus trees. This however, also means that the country is susceptible to outside influencing, as there currently is no method for boosting Non-Aligned party popularity.

Finland suffers from a chronic shortage of manpower, due to its low population. This effectively shoehorns the player to choose the fascist path of the political branch of the national focus tree as the +7% manpower obtained from it is a godsend due to Finland already being at the maximum allowed conscription law when Non-Aligned.

Choosing the fascist path of the political branch will inevitably lead to the fascists taking power so it is therefore best to simply embrace it. Elect a Fascist demagogue into your government to speed up the conversion process as being fascist opens up a unique possibility which will be discussed later.

Alternatively, you could choose different ideology which in this case will open up other possibilities, which will be covered later as well.

Finland's starting industry is typical for a country of its size, but is far from sufficient. The player should focus on the industrial branch of the national focus tree, granting 8 additional factories (split evenly between civilian and military, that is 4 civilian factories and 4 military factories, as well as an additional research slot at the end. One should also invest time into researching industrial technology, Basic-, Improved-, and Advanced machine Tools all provide a great boost to industrial production. Pick Dispersed Industry over Concentrated Industry as the added Factory bomb vulnerability reduction will be very important when up against the Soviets.

Once you have completed the industrial branch you can go ahead and complete the Naval Effort national focus to pick up 3 free Naval Dockyards for shipbuilding, the rest of the tree however, will have to be completed later.

As far as military doctrines are concerned, Finland's best option would be Superior Firepower. The doctrine description specifically states Our manpower is precious, bullets are cheap, and that is precisely what situation Finland is in right now. If you can bombard the Russians into the dirt and conserve as much manpower as possible, it will be all the easier to survive. The Finnish military overall is in the need of improvement, elect a military theorist to obtain army experience for editing your division templates as your starting designs are quite underwhelming. Once you research artillery, you should focus on Regular artillery as well as Anti-Tank artillery, Anti-Air artillery is useful but will have to come later. Initially place your artillery guns into a support role (Support Artillery, as it requires less guns but inflicts less damage) but once you have constructed enough artillery pieces, move them into the line (Line Artillery, it requires more guns but inflicts greater damage).

One people, one country, one leader (Fascist path)[edit]

If you chose to go down the fascist path on the national focus tree, then you now have a unique opportunity at your fingertips. Your neighbor Flag of Sweden Sweden has about the same industrial capacity as you but also has access to a lot of metals on its territory, and since we are talking about national survival, why waste factories for trade when you can take what you need. Justify a wargoal on Sweden as soon as you are able to get your army fully equipped and start training new divisions. Sweden has 12 divisions in its military which is less then your starting amount so you should be able to overpower them numerically. Do not add in artillery yet into you military as this will only slow down troop production. You are fighting against an opponent far less capable than the Soviets so you should be okay as long as you play right and deploy more divisions. Position your troops on the Swedish border in Finnish Lapland and attach all new divisions to this army. Once the wargoal completes, declare war and begin your invasion, due to the geographical shape of Sweden, you should try to breach the frontline as close to the coast as possible and maneuver around the main Swedish force, up to the Norwegian border. Doing so will cut of the supply routes for the Swedish forces and the resulting attrition will completely destroy their ability to fight.

Once you have destroyed the main Swedish forces in Swedish Lapland, push aggressively southwards, Sweden's high national unity means that you may have to capture all major cities to force them to capitulate. If you destroyed the main Swedish contingent on yard way through Lapland, then you should only encounter residual troops at this point, if there are any left.

Upon scoring victory and the commencing of peace negotiations, annex Sweden in its entirety. Doing so will practically double you industrial capacity and tremendously increase your available resources.

It may appear tempting to go after Flag of Norway Norway and Flag of Denmark Denmark next, the Norwegian army consists of only 10 divisions, on par with Sweden's and Denmark can offer 5 divisions worth of resistance and both will yield about the same amount of factories. It is up to the player to choose however, you do not want world tension to increase to 25% or higher, as that allows the Flag of United Kingdom United Kingdom to guarantee the independence of said nations and you do not want to end up at war with them and their dominions.

After securing Sweden, it is time to start preparing for the Soviet invasion which is slated to occur at some point in 1939-1940. You will nee to construct forts to establish a defensive line against the Russians.

You need to raise approximately 25-30 decently equipped divisions for defending Finland, if you conquered Sweden earlier then you may have to raise 20-30 additional divisions to defend that front as well. You will have to enact very strict conscription laws to muster up enough manpower to man both defensive lines so you may have to choose between digging deeper into your already limited manpower or giving up control of Sweden and retaining some additional manpower to replace casualties.

You start with two level 2 Land Forts on the Karelian isthmus (in the state of Karelia) so they can be used as a starting point for your defensive line. Finland contains a lot of lakes, and due to the way the game functions, enemy units cannot attack across lakes, therefore, you can use the Finnish lakeland to limit the number of routes the enemy can attack through and therefore build a stronger defensive line. Build up a line of forts running through the Finnish lakeland in central Finland. In general, you should attempt to build a defensive line that completely blocks off all access to the main Finnish cities (Helsinki, Vaasa, Viipuri and Tampere) while requiring as few forts as possible to fortify. The forts should be upgraded as high as possible but each individual fort should be at least Level 4-6 as the Soviets will launch attack after attack in an attempt to breach the defenses and as they grow more desperate, you can expect the attacks to increase in severity.

The next part of the plan is setting up the necessary system to protect the forts from aerial bombardment, even a wall of Level 10 Forts can be breached if it takes sufficiently high damage and the Soviets are likely to send wave after wave of bombers to try and accomplish that. Therefore, the Finnish forces will have to prevent or at least minimize the damage dealt by soviet bombardment and that is through a combination of Anti-Air emplacements and Anti-Air artillery Anti-Air emplacements will reduce bombing damage by up to 60%, which ensures that, even if Finland cannot maintain Air superiority, at least the damage dealt by enemy bombers will be greatly reduced. Anti-Air artillery will reduce damage dealt to individual ground units which reduces casualties and makes defending easier.

The plan requires you to give up all of Northern Finland, that may seem stupid but the harsh truth is that Finland simply cannot raise enough troops to hold down the enemy (the Soviets) at the frontier, instead, it has to rely on entrenching itself in a strategically viable position (on the defensive line in the lakeland) and there bleed the Soviet military dry.

If you conquered Sweden, then you have to split up your forces into two sections and build a second defensive line in Northern Sweden to hold of the soviets there as well. Remember that building a swedish defensive line is a secondary priority, you can afford to lose Sweden to the Soviets but you can not afford to lose Helsinki, as that will result in an instant game over. If you have to sacrifice your control over Sweden in exchange for your survival, then that is a fair trade. Sweden is a little harder to defend as there are no strategic positions that can be used to limit enemy attack routes. Simply construct a straight line of forts (this time, they may have to be level 5 or higher) and back them up with Anti-Air in the state. Position as many troops as you can afford on the line and concentrate the rest of your forces on you main defensive line in central Finland.

While the construction is underway, it is time to start updating the Finnish arsenal to prepare for the invasion. Start construction of Artillery; Regular- and Anti-Tank Artillery are the most vital, Anti-Air Artillery can come second. Attach a support artillery- and support anti-tank company to every infantry division, followed by support anti-air last. Once you accumulate enough guns, move your regular artillery into the line (replace the support artillery with line artillery) to maximize its effect, you should preferably not do the same with anti-tank or anti-air artillery as they only attack specific units and contribute less to the overall combat than regular artillery.

In 1939-1940, assuming that nothing seriously unusual happens, the Soviet invasion will likely start. You do have the choice of accepting the Soviets' demands; this will allow you to retain you independence but you will lose the states of Karjala and Salla to the Soviets without war. If you choose to reject the demand, war will ensue.

Once war breaks out, the Soviets will most likely quickly occupy all unguarded territory and will move onwards until they reach you defenses. This is when the actual defense of Finland starts.

Once the winter war starts, use your reserve of political power to immediately switch to war economy (total mobilization should avoided as it inflicts a -3% penalty to your manpower) and switch to a harsh, but not negative recruitment program (everything from Service by Requirement inflicts penalties to factory output). Immediately start raising new infantry divisions using your existing template.

Now is the hard (and tedious) bit; slow down the game and zoom in to start micro-managing your troops like never before. You have to hold off the soviets as long as you can in order to give the new divisions time to finish training and join the fight. Abandon any territory that cannot be reliably defended and draw the Soviets into your pre-built defensive line. Focus on the South Eastern part of the line (the Karelian Isthmus and Ladoga Karelia), the Soviets have a supply line advantage here and if you are not careful, they can potentially muster up enough troops to breach the line and encircle the Finnish troops. The Far North (Including the Swedish line, if present) is less critical as supply lines will be less effective and the soviets will not recover from equipment loss as easily.

Micro-manage your units and monitor combat vigilantly, if you see a battle that is not going well, move some of your units over to assist and turn the tide to repel the assault but do not leave any tiles undefended. The Soviet AI struggles to deal with the supply rules and will regularly stack troops in the wrong place or shift units to counter buildups on other borders. When the AI shows a weak point (like an undermanned position or exhausted unit), attack that point and inflict as much damage as you can. Once the AI "realises" you're doing well, it will immediately rush units over to stop you, fall back to your defensive positions and defend again. Get your newly recruited units in the field quickly, they'll learn fast. Try to inflict casualties at a 6:1 ratio (6 soviet soldiers killed for every finnish soldier killed), that way you will be able to sustain your defense.

Since you changed your ideology to Fascist, you can join the Axis but do not call in your allies just yet, instead, let the Flag of German Reich German Reich make its own way into war with the Soviets as per its national focus tree. Until that happens, drain the Soviet manpower pool as much as you can.

Once Germany chooses to start Operation Barbarossa, the Soviet Union will be at a significant disadvantage as the protracted war with Finland has led to a massive loss of manpower and equipment and the Red Army will be ill-prepared to face the German military. Once Germany attacks, the Soviets will move a large portion of their forces away from the Finnish front to deal with the Germans. When they do that, Finland will gain the opportunity to attack and regain lost territory. After liberating all of Finland, invade russian Karelia and the Kola peninsula and try to cut off and trap as many soviet divisions as you can, every soviet division destroyed will only make matters worse for the soviets.

After conquering russian karelia and clearing out all residual russian units, strike southwards, first taking Leningrad and then make your way towards Moscow, you may end up expending all your remaining manpower doing this and the Finnish troops are likely to get spread out very thinly but as long as the Soviet Union doesn't capitulate, it remains a threat to you.

Once the Soviet Union capitulates, in the peace treaty, you may annex as much land as you can afford. Due to the way the system is set, the casualties you inflicted should grant you plenty of war score. If one wants to play historically, then annex the states of Onega, Olonets, Kola and Leningrad and proclaim a Greater Finland and either satellite or annex the Baltic territories.

After the end of the war, Finland may end up left with a depleted economy, damaged infrastructure and no men of fighting age left but will still have survived the Soviet incursion and remained an independent nation. With the Soviets finally dealt with for good, the player can start the process of rebuilding the country after the devastation caused by the war. Or, if the damage suffered is mild enough to allow it, then the player can, for example, go on to finish their conquest of Northern Europe. The conquest of Flag of Norway Norway and Flag of Denmark Denmark should be a walk in the park compared to what the Finns just went through with the Soviets and will make nice additions to the growing Finnish Empire in the Nordic region.

A deal with the Devil (Communist path)[edit]

If Finland does not wish to face the Soviets directly and is not interested in an alliance with the likes of the Flag of German Reich German Reich, Flag of Italy Italy or Flag of Japan Japan, then an alternative could be to draw closer to the Soviets and enter an alliance with them. This requires appointing a Communist Revolutionary and going down the Communist path of the Political branch of the national focus tree. You will forfeit the added manpower available in the Fascist path but joining the Comintern will ensure that the Soviets will not be hostile to you anymore.

With its eastern border secured by a new-found ally, a Communist Finland has a lot of potential nations nearby to expand into or satellite. Flag of Sweden Sweden, Flag of Norway Norway and Flag of Denmark Denmark are all viable targets for conquest and the Baltic States of Flag of Estonia Estonia, Flag of Latvia Latvia and Flag of Lithuania Lithuania are also possible candidates via Naval Invasion. Just be mindful that six consecutive conquests and associated annexations will generate a lot of world tension so turning your targets into puppets is preferable, as a Communist nation, you have a -70% cost reduction for puppeteering and you can always diplomatically annex your puppets later by reducing their autonomy to zero. This generates far less world tension, preventing things from escalating faster than they should.

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