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The basic functional unit for naval forces in Hearts of Iron IV is the fleet. While these fleets are made up of individual ships of different classes which can be named and customized, in order to use them at all they must be assigned to fleets. It is the fleet that carries out naval missions and naval combat, and while the individual ships in those fleets can gain experience or be sunk, they are at all times assigned to a fleet and take action in the game as part of a fleet until sunk or scrapped (i.e. deleted). Each new ship produced is either automatically assigned to a designated existing fleet or to a new fleet of its own in a naval base that may also be specified by the player.
Naval combat is mostly automated through mission orders assigned to fleets and to be carried out in particular sea regions. A single fleet can cover at most three adjacent regions, combining them into one large patrol area. Orders can specify how sensitive the fleet is to damage and they will return to their home base to repair automatically when predetermined damage levels are reached (or if ordered to break off severely damaged ships and send them to base to repair while the main fleet continues its mission. Fleets can also be ordered to engage the enemy or to avoid combat. Admirals may be assigned to fleets to improve offensive and defensive combat abilities proportional to their skill level and provide the benefits and bonuses of any individual traits they may have.
- 1 Navy Overview
- 2 Fleets
- 2.1 Admirals
- 2.2 Repair Priority
- 2.3 Other Repair Options
- 2.4 Rules of Engagement
- 2.5 Fleet Management
- 2.6 Viewing Combat Statistics
- 3 Sea Regions
- 4 Naval Missions
- 5 Naval Shore Bombardment
- 6 Naval Combat
View the Navy Overview by pressing the P hotkey or clicking on the Navy icon in the top right corner of the screen. This will bring up a summary of the the country's naval forces currently deployed (not those under construction), as well as any bonuses or penalties currently in effect due to Naval Doctrine research. Directly underneath these bonuses are the number of each type of ship, dipslayed as a silhouette, a naval designation for the ship type and a number.
Below that overview is a list of fleets, their type, name and location, as well as the number of ships in each fleet and its current mission. Left click on any fleet to select it. Right clicking on a fleet in this list will center the map on that fleet.
Lost ships will open a window that lets you see a list of ships of yours that have been sunk.
Equipment details lets you to see your deployed ships not only by category (Carrier, Battleship, Submarine, etc) and quantity but also by ship class and quantity. This tool provides you with information to let you decide if a particular category of ship is made up of older hull types and could use newer class ships in that type, as well as help you judge the overall make-up of your navy.
Fleets usually begin the game docked in naval bases. The number shown on the counter is the total amount of individual ships currently in that base. Holding your mouse over that counter will show you more information including fleet names, average strength and organization for all the ships in that base, and a count of ship types.
Docked fleets may in times of war be vulnerable to port strikes if air superiority over the continental region the port is in cannot be secured. As such it is recommended that ships are based in ports that either have sufficient air coverage or are outside the range of the enemy airforce.
Individual fleets may be selected by first clicking on that counter which will bring up your fleets on the left side of the screen, as shown in the screenshot where "Home Fleet", "Northern Patrol" and "2nd Submarine Flotilla" have all been selected with one click. To select an individual fleet the player can click on "Select", and to select several fleets from this group you can hold down ⇧Shift + click on "Select" for the fleets you wish to add. The fleet list will be reduced to only the fleets you selected when one lets go of ⇧Shift.
When your fleet is selected you can assign an Admiral to it by clicking on the empty silhouette in the picture frame. It is important to assign admirals to your fleets if you have them, as they can greatly influence combat. If the player does not have admirals they may be recruited with Political Power Points; they cost 5 Political Power for each admiral.
|Naval hit chance||+10%||+20%||+30%||+40%||+50%|
Each Admiral may have a number of traits, represented by medal icons.
|Trait||Effect||Action required||XP required|
|Old Guard||−25% Leader experience gain||Not gainable.||–|
|Sea Wolf||+20% Submarine Attack||At least 80% are submarines.||700|
|Blockade Runner|| +20% Retreat decision chance
+25% Fleet speed while retreating
|Superior Tactician||+25% Number of ships in the first contact||Is winning.||700|
|Spotter||+10% Spotting chance||Gains 10 XP on spotting.||700|
|Fly swatter||+10% Naval AA attack||Is fighting air units.||700|
|Ironside||+10% Capital Ship Armor||Fighting with Capital Ships against Capital Ships.||700|
|Air Controller|| +10% Sortie efficiency
+10% Naval Air Targetting from Carriers
|Has carrier air wings on missions.||700|
The speed at which ships are repaired is determined by the size of the naval base, the amount of ships that are damaged and being repaired at the same time, and the severity of the damage. Naval bases repair 0.075 HP worth of ships per level of base per hour, divided evenly between all ships docked at that base for repairs. Once damage is repaired, the fleet will automatically return to the patrol area and resume the mission.
Other Repair Options
Rules of Engagement
This toggle switches between ‘Fire at will!’, where the fleet will engage any hostiles it encounters and ‘Do not engage’, where the fleet will seek to avoid combat. It's worth noting that fleets that are assigned orders should not have ‘Do not engage’ selected, otherwise they will simply run every time they encounter the enemy. Also, fleets assigned a specific order such as “Convoy Raiding” will not try to engage enemy warships on patrol, even if their Rules of Engagement are set to ‘Fire at will!’ but instead they will prefer to sink convoys.
Sometimes the makeup of your fleets should be changed to add or remove ships. There are several ways to do this.
Dragging Ships Between Fleets
To transfer ships between existing fleets one must select the fleets. Remember that if there is more than one fleet in the base you can use the ⇧Shift key to narrow down the selection of fleets selected. Then you simply drag a class of ship from one fleet to the next by using the mouse. Click on the silhouette of the ship class you wish to move and drag the silhouette to the destination selected fleet. Once there release the silhouette and a new pop up box will appear called "Select Ships to Transfer". This will let you specify if you wanted to move the entire class of ships or only a smaller set of ships from that class to the new fleet.
You can repeat these steps for different classes of ships until the fleets have the composition you want.
Creating a New Fleet
Another way to manage one's fleets is by using the "Create New Fleet" Button which you can find when any fleet is selected. This lets you take ships from the currently selected fleet and assign them to an entirely new fleet. It's worth pointing out again that unless you specify a naval base or a destination fleet in the production screen when producing ships, the game will automatically generate a fleet and all newly produced ships will be assigned to that fleet. However you can use this button to create smaller, more specialized fleets from that automatically generated "reserve" fleet. When the "Create New Fleet" button is pressed a "Select Ships to Transfer" window will pop up allowing the player to specify which ships you wish to move to the new fleet. Once finished the new fleet will appear in your list of fleets with a generic name, like "Italy Fleet 1" for example.
Merging Existing Fleets
One can merge existing fleets by selecting the fleets in question by pressing the Merge Fleets button located at the top of your selected fleets and to the right of the fleet mission selection icons. The selected fleets will immediately merge together into a single fleet. Hot key is [g] (group).
Left clicking on a ship in the fleet will bring up its ship details. From here its statistical values are visible, along with any combat history on the second tab. It is possible to rename the ship by pressing its name. Carriers will show the attached air wings. Reorganizeing air wings is done through the air wing management system. To scrap/disband a ship press the red cross in the upper right corner of the ship detail screen, this will return its manpower to the pool and is an alternative to sending old ships off on suicidal missions.
Carrier Air Wings
When building a carrier, the player has the option to pre-define how its air wings should be organized. The carrier aircraft still have to be produced separately by military factories. The air wings of existing carriers can be adjusted by selecting the air wing in the air force overview or by selecting an air region in the air map mode, which brings up a list of all bases, and then selecting the fleet the carrier is a part of to bring up the air base windows for all carriers in that fleet. From the (carrier) base window the process is identical to establishing or modifying a wing stationed at an air base. Pay attention to the aircraft capacity, as carriers can have uneven capacity. Only carrier (navalized) aircraft may be based on carriers, and must be researched and produced separately from their ground based counterparts.
Viewing Combat Statistics
Hearts of Iron IV tracks experience, skill and history for individual ships, and this can be seen in the Fleet View. Select the fleet which you want to review. You will notice that each individual ship in your fleet is listed with a green organization and a brown strength bar, a silhouette for the ship class, a rank icon to show the ship's experience level, a vertical progress bar showing how much experience that ship has accumulated towards the next rank and the name of the ship. If the ship has participated in combat and sunk any enemy vessels, an additional icon appears next to the ship name for history. Holding the mouse over this history icon will give you a summary of how many ships you have sunk with this vessel. Clicking on the history icon will open the ship details pop up displaying the history of ships sunk for that particular vessel.
Strategy Fleet Composition
All the ships seem to have their place. It is a good idea to have 3 screen ships for every capital ship in a battle fleet. For example, a late war US carrier task group might have the ideal maximum number of 4 CV (limited by management of airspace), 2 fast BB, a few BC or CA, and numerous screening vessels consisting of some CL and 18+ DD. Overstacking can lead to penalties, but separate carrier, surface action and submarine task groups might each operate in cooperation with each other.
In addition to large carrier or battleship-based fleets, a navy should use smaller fleets for specialized purposes, such as patrol fleets with 3-3 CAs/BCs, a few CLs and a bunch of DDs, flotillas of 3-6 subs on convoy raiding or search and destroy missions, as well as squadrons of a couple DD for anti-submarine warfare, convoy escort, or convoy raiding. Destroyers are the backbone of your fleet. They are cheap, the best choice for dealing with subs, and able to torpedo enemy capital ships in favorable conditions when the enemy's screens are weak or absent. Always have DDs available for screening purposes and these other duties.
Light Cruisers are 3 times as expensive as destroyers, but provide better surface detection allowing you to find enemy navies/convoys faster, have more powerful torpedoes and guns while being almost as fast and evasive. A CL outclasses a DD in a fight and can enhance the effectiveness of a small destroyer task force. Heavy Cruisers and Battlecruisers are fast enough to support your screens in early skirmishes against enemy screens by using their superior guns to prevent a few dozen enemy destroyers from using hit and run tactics to pick off screen vessels a few at a time and exposing heavier vessels to torpedo attack. Battlecruisers are significantly more expensive than Heavy Cruisers, but have much higher range and firepower and are ideal for fast task groups and were used as surface raiders in both world wars.
The oceans of the world are divided into large strategic regions called Sea Regions. You can view these regions more clearly by pressing the F2 key which will call up the names and highlight the thick black borders of these regions.
Sea Regions are subdivided into smaller areas which are equivalent to provinces on land. These smaller areas can be seen when the map is zoomed in, they are defined by a thin black border whereas the larger Sea Regions have a thick black border. While Sea Regions define where a fleet can carry out missions, these smaller areas allow the player to move a fleet to a particular spot on the map without a mission. This can be done by selecting a fleet, selecting Hold H, and right clicking anywhere on the map within the fleet's range. A beige movement arrow appears and the fleet will move to that particular spot on the map and stay there. It will not carry out a mission however if it is detected by an enemy and combat ensues, it will act accordingly to the Rules of Engagement that are currently active. Such a fleet will also intercept any enemy moving through its immediate area, but not an enemy moving in nearby areas even if they are in the same Sea Region.
When this mode is selected one will also see friendly convoy routes which are represented by the dotted lines. The convoy routes consist of supply convoys that leave your home country to supply any overseas territories and armies, as well as resource convoys which collect resources from overseas territories and bring them to your home territory. Trade routes will also generate supply routes to or from the countries you may be trading with. Those routes will last for as long as the trade deal is in effect. Supply convoys are fully automated and abstracted and you do not have to worry about them, however it is important to note which Sea Regions your trade routes pass through because enemy action in one of those regions could cause the destruction of convoy ships. When you run out of convoy ships, trade and supply can no longer occur efficiently which can result lost factory production or troop attrition and lost battles. Therefore it is important for a sea-going empire to familiarize itself with supply and trade routes and protect them with naval vessels.
Remember that fleets on a mission will carry out that mission in the entire Sea Region, and may also cover up to three contiguous Sea Regions per fleet.
To assign a mission to a fleet the player should first select that fleet. Once the fleet appears you will see the icons (pointed at by the red arrow in the picture) to assign a mission to that fleet. These icons are Patrol (Z), Search and Destroy (X), Convoy Raiding (C) and Convoy Escort (V) and are used to choose a mission type for the selected fleet(s). There is also an anchor symbol, for Hold (H), which will order the fleet to halt its mission. Executing the halt command will not send the fleet back to base, it will just stop the mission and the fleet will then remain where it is.
View Assigned Mission
You can view which mission is currently assigned to a selected fleet by looking at the current mission box (highlighted by the red circle in the picture on the left). This icon tells you which mission the fleet is currently assigned to perform. An anchor in this box means that this fleet currently has no mission orders. Fleets with no mission orders that are not docked will still follow the Rules of Engagement in the small ocean area where they are located.
Selecting Patrol Area
Once you have selected a fleet and decided which mission that fleet should carry out, you must assign that fleet to a patrol area somewhere on the map. To do this one must have his fleet selected and then right click on the Sea Region where one wants to carry out that mission. Each fleet can be assigned a single mission in up to 3 contiguous Sea Regions. Just keep right clicking on Sea Regions that touch each other or the original Sea Region. An error sound will occur if attempts to assign a fleet to more than 3 Sea Regions are made or to Sea Regions that are not next to each other. In the example on the right it can be see that "Home Fleet" is set to perform a patrol of these three Sea Regions: Western Approaches, Norwegian Sea and North Sea since the map shows those Sea Regions covered with green hatching.
If the player wants to remove a Sea Region from your patrol area, you can do so by ⇧Shift + right click on the Sea Region to be removed. ^Ctrl + right click will remove all selected patrol areas and force the fleet to move to the location clicked on without having a mission assigned to it. In the picture below it can be seen that "Home Fleet" will now move until it is off the coast of Norway, but it will not perform any mission. Units assigned to the map without a mission can still engage in combat if the enemy fleet detects them or happens to pass through their specific area.
There are currently 5 naval missions in the game, each with their own purpose.
This mission will cause your fleet to spread out into the assigned patrol areas in a very loose formation. This greatly increases the chances of detecting any enemy vessels in the assigned patrol areas however this comes at a cost. When an enemy is detected and combat begins, because the fleet is so spread out it's likely that only a few friendly ships will be in the initial combat. The ships will request assistance from the other fleet members in the patrol area, however it will take time for the fleet to fully assemble into an effective formation. This could prevent an effective engagement to the enemy or worse, could allow taking losses before the rest of the fleet arrives. The "Formation Spread" for this mission type is 160%.
Search and Destroy
This mission will cause your fleet to adopt a tight formation in the assigned patrol areas. This makes it harder to detect enemy vessels in the patrol area, but it is likely that most of your fleet will be able to engage any enemy very quickly if combat begins. This could allow starting to dealing damage on the enemy's weaker vessels before the entire fleet is assembled. The "Formation Spread" for this mission type is 50%.
This mission causes your fleet to look for enemy convoys in the assigned patrol areas. Although your fleet can be engaged by enemy vessels if it is detected, this mission type prefers to avoid combat if possible except against commercial shipping. The "Formation Spread" for this mission type is 120%. Convoy raiding can target enemy convoys of all types. Trade convoys, reinforcments convoys, lend lease convoys, Troop convoys with enemy divisions ( both redeploying and invading ) and Domestic resource convoys. Note however that one will only be able to target enemy convoy routes that are active with convoys on them, if enemy overseas units for example have enough local supply to sustain them you won't be able to sink convoys on the route there.
This mission lets a fleet protect friendly convoys in the assigned patrol areas, allowing them to concentrate on enemy submarines and commerce raiders that dare to attack your shipping. While using this mission type you can still be engaged by other fleets however your ships will tend to avoid combat unless specifically protecting friendly convoy ships. The "Formation Spread" for this mission type is 67%.
This option causes your fleet to abandon any mission it was on and hold position, or go immediately to wherever one orders them to go by a right-click (such as getting it away from danger or on station at a trouble spot). It is used for for conducting Shore Bombardment in support of combats in adjacent coastal land provinces or if you want to use Fleet Carrier airwings to do separate Air missions like air superiority, naval strikes, port strikes or ground attack.
Missions on the Map
Patrol Area Icons
When a fleet is on a mission in a patrol area (which can include up to 3 adjacent Sea Regions), the fleet counter disappears from the map and a mission icon appears in the Sea Regions being patrolled. These mission icons are the same as the ones used to assign the mission to allow for quick and easy identification of the mission type occurring in that patrol area, and the number underneath the icon tells you how many fleets are currently performing that mission in that area. For example in the picture it can be seen that in the North Sea Sea Region there are 2 fleets doing Patrol, one fleet is doing Search and Destroy, two fleets are doing Convoy Raiding and one fleet is doing Convoy Escort.
If the player clicks on any one of these icons you will get a list of the fleets performing that mission in that Sea Region or a "Select All" button. One can select all the fleets doing that particular mission by clicking "Select All" or one can select individual fleets by clicking on the fleet name of the fleet you wish to select. One cannot select a group of fleets in this manner, it is either all or just one.
Shore bombardment is not exactly a mission. In order to perform bombardment of any enemy land forces in a coastline province, all one has to do is move a fleet containing Capital Ships to the sea area next to the land province you wish to bombard, and keep it stationary there with "Hold" mission. The bombardment penalty will automatically be added to combat in the coastal land province when the capable fleet is in adjacent sea province. The maximum bombardment penalty is 25% and is proportional to the number of appropriate ships in the fleet. Range of the ships is not a factor. Bombardment will include the shoreline provinces only. Battleships and Super Heavy Battleships add the greatest amount to the bombardment penalty, followed by Battlecruisers and Cruisers.
In the example one can see the Japanese cruiser fleet of 7 ships including the Izuomo and Iwate has moved off the coast of China and is within range to provide support to Imperial troops attacking 32 Juntuán. You can confirm this by spotting the bombardment penalty icon under the Chinese general's name.
When a country is at war and has a fleet deployed on the map either performing a mission in one or more Sea Regions or simply sitting in an ocean area somewhere, eventually they will encounter enemy naval vessels and combat will begin. Naval combat is fully automated to reduce micromanagement. One establishes orders and behavior for your Fleets and assign them to patrol certain areas of the map, with orders on how to behave when damage is received. However it may still be a good idea to check your naval battles once in a while, since this might give you clues as to the enemy's force disposition in that area, as well as insight into how your own fleets might need better organized to deal with it.
When an encounter occurs and enemy ships have been spotted, there will be an audio cue as well as informational icons on the screen. On the right side of the screen you will see a flaming anchor icon with a red exclamation mark. This lets one know that a naval encounter has occurred in the region and that combat is in progress or it will begin shortly. If one clicks on the burning anchor, the map will center on the location of the combat encounter.
Combat Location and Force Strength
When an encounter happens it means that ships from both navies have detected each other. It does not necessarily mean that all ships are currently engaged in combat. Depending on the orders assigned to either fleet some fleets may be out of position and currently avoiding combat until more of their fleet shows up. On the map you will see a display of relative fleet sizes in total number of warships. The number on the left represents allied warships, and the number on the right represents enemy warships. In the current example there are 8 allied warships against zero enemy warships. Clicking on this informational icon will bring up the naval battle box.
Clicking on the icon on the map that shows the encounter and navy strength will bring up the Naval Battle popup screen. On this screen one will see the automatically generated battle name, the ocean picture will let you know if it is day or night and give you an idea of the weather as well. The player will see allied forces on the left, and enemy forces on the right, as well as the admirals leading the opposing sides, if any, and their skills. Beneath that one will see a colored bar showing relative strength. In this case the bar is all the way to the right which means the friendly strike group is very unlikely to lose this battle against German convoy ships. Holding the mouse over this bar will give more information as well as an estimate as to how long the battle will last.
Underneath the relative strength bar one will see a map with a dotted vertical line down the middle, and some ship icons. On the right and left side of this map there will be an area which might have ship silhouettes in it - this is the "out of range" area. It represents ships that are in the Sea Region and will participate in the battle and currently proceeding at full speed to link up and assume formation with the ships currently on the map. So in this case we currently have 8 destroyers which have spotted 3 German convoys. On their way are 1 aircraft carrier, 5 battleships, 3 battlecruisers, 1 cruiser, 6 light cruisers: and 1 additional destroyer. The Germans are not expecting any reinforcements.
The way a Naval battle works is as follows. Ships have both positioning relative to the enemy vessels, and weapon range. The dotted line down the middle represents a theoretical midpoint between the fleets, and the closer a ship is to that dotted line, the closer a ship is to the enemy's theoretical "side". So in this example, the German convoys are almost right up on the allied side as far as they can go. This represents a very bad position if one is an unarmed convoy ship facing armed enemy warships. So we can expect that the convoys will try to move out of range, to the right.
In the meantime, the group of 8 destroyers are the ships that spotted the convoys. They are not within firing range, and thus far from the midline. They will need to turn and speed towards the convoy ships in order to engage, because destroyer weapon range is not all that great. Now depending on how the AI logic that governs the battle determines it gets a better outcome, the destroyers might head straight for the convoys without waiting for other friendly ships. Or if the AI figures it could out-number the destroyers it would wait for other allied ships to enter formation before attacking.
Now the game is advanced a few hours so that we can see what is happening. In this second picture, we can see that the destroyers have closed position towards the German convoy ships. The convoy ships are trying to get away, however a 10 knot merchantman cannot hope to outrun a 30 knot destroyer. It simply won't happen. We see that the AI correctly decided that the merchantmen might be tackled without reinforcements. If you will notice, the rest of the allied fleet has inched closer to the battle map, however it's likely that this battle will soon be over before they ever get in range, especially since the destroyers have already begun firing from their optimal position, the dotted line in the middle of the map.
Note that all ships have status bars on top of them. The solid green bar represents full organization and the solid brown bar represents full strength. These bars represent an average if they cover more than one ship. In the first picture of this battle, the convoy ships are at full strength. In the later picture, the convoy ships' strength is dropping as they take damage. In this picture the mouse pointer is being held over the 8 friendly destroyers however due to the way screenshots work, the cursor itself is not visible. But one will see that additionally a blue arrow appears pointing from the destroyers to the convoy ships. This represents the group which my destroyers are currently firing at, which is what caused the damage. Also a tooltip pop up has appeared to the right of the combat box showing the actual numbers involved in the combat calculation, for those who are interested. While this information is not so important in such a small battle as this against a harmless opponent, you can use the information in this box to help determine who is dealing damage to who in your fleet so that you can create more efficient fleet compositions in the future.
By advancing the game a few more hours it can be seen that the allied destroyers have claimed their first victim, and a nameless merchantman now rests on the bottom of the North Sea, which in this case is the box on the bottom of the screen that represents sunk ships. Quite obviously there haven't been any casualties on the allied side and they remain in optimal position and gun range. In fact the remaining two merchant vessels are also quite severely damaged. So despite the rest of the fleet being far, far out of range, it looks like this battle is almost over. It's important to note also how the relative strength progress bar has shifted in this new screenshot. It's now quite obvious that the allies will win this battle.
A mere two hours later, all convoy ships are sunk. The player is back onto the map screen because the naval combat box disappeared, and he's left with this little icon that tells us that convoys have been sunk here. It's important to note the little gold star above the convoy ship. This means an allied victory, so enemy convoys have been destroyed. Had there been a skull instead of a star, it would mean enemy victory - or that allied convoys had been sunk.
The Fleet I assigned to the North Sea was assigned to Search and Destroy. My intention was to intercept any enemy warships trying to operate in the North Sea. However the game will take advantage of any targets of opportunity such as convoy ships, and sink those as well. Next let's look at a real naval battle, against opponents who can fight back.
If you click on this icon you will get to the battle summary screen which we will go over in the next section. First, let's go pick a fight.
As was mentioned at the beginning, Naval Combat in Hearts of Iron IV is mostly automated. The work must be put in before the fight, by organizing one's fleets into appropriate sizes and with enough screens. One should think a little about the specific areas are best to be controlled and what one hopes to achieve. Land based aviation, for example, can have serious consequences for the unwary navy especially as the war drags on and technologies improve. Remember that the goal of the Navy is not necessarily sink enemy ships. There is no glory in having sunk tonnes of warships if you lose the war. And those variables Paradox has chosen to leave to you.
Carrier Capable Aircraft
This section may contain outdated information that is inaccurate for the current version of the game. The last version it was verified as up to date for was 1.1.
In order to be able to base aircraft on an aircraft carrier, carrier capable models must be produced. To do this, first the land based version of an aircraft will be researched, then one must research the carrier capable version by clicking the aircraft carrier button on the aircraft type in the air research tab.
This can only be done for Fighters, Close Air Support and Naval Bombers. The carrier capable version has a different model name than the land based version, as well as different artwork and different stats. If one doesn't intend to use aircraft carriers, then one does not need to research carrier capable planes.
When a new carrier is produced, the planes that will originally be based on it are produced as part of the carrier production line in the naval section using dockyards. It will produce the most up-to-date models researched. From the carrier production line one can change the types of planes that will be produced and deployed with the new carrier when it is launched. If there is need to replace these, then one will need to set-up a new aircraft production line using military factories, and select the appropriate carrier capable model.
When an aircraft carrier is part of a fleet which is on patrol in one or more regions, then the wings based on it are shown as on a carrier mission. They will operate as a Carrier Air Group and automatically take part in any naval combat if the fleet engages or is engaged by the enemy, and the carrier is within range. There is no need to give them any specific orders.
If one wishes to use one's carriers as a floating air base, and use the wings to operate standard air missions, then they will no longer operate automatically as a Carrier Air Group. If the carrier fleet is engaged by the enemy it may not have air cover. The player should be careful to make sure that it is properly protected. One might place a fighter wing on an interception mission in the region where the carrier fleet is located, but send a bomber wing to target an adjoining region, for example to support an amphibious landing.