Greece

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Greece
Greece.png
Capital:
Athens

Government Type:
Authoritarian Regime

Faction:
Neutral Neutrality

Greece is a minor European country located in the southern Balkans. Placed at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa, Greece holds a strategic location that every alliance would benefit from controling. It has a long coastline and a mainly mountainous terrain. In game, the nation is more or less comparable in military strength, infrastructure and technology to the Balkan nations, but greatly below from the standards of the major European powers.

Historical Background[edit]

Greece emerged victorious from WWI as a member of the Triple Entente. As a reward for her services, Greece was granted by her allies territory in Thrace and Asia Minor at the expense of Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire via the Treaty of Sèvres (1920). However, her defeat in the Greco-Turkish War of 1919-1922 ended the dream of restoring old Byzantium. Additionally, an unprecedented humanitarian catastrophe befell the Greek population that had been living in Anatolia for almost 3.000 years. Hundreds of thousands of anatolian Greeks were massacred by turkish nationalists in a genocide that was only surpased by the Armenian Genocide. Well over a million were later deported to mainland Greece. Ultimately, the country's borders were limited by the Treaty of Lausanne (1923) in western Thrace and the Aegean Islands (excluding the Dodecanese). In the meantime Greece was forced to cede Northern Epirus back to Flag of Albania Albania in 1921.

In August 1936, after more than a decade of civil and political unrest, power in Greece was seized by the fascist dictator Ioánnis Metaxás. Foreseeing a second Great War, he made military preparations his top priority. He signed large arms deals with the European powers, effectively rearming Greece, and raised the “Metaxa Line” — a large series of forts covering the borders with Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria, believed the most likely enemy of Greece. Although a fascist and pro-German, Metaxás nonetheless was sure the Flag of United Kingdom United Kingdom and its Commonwealth would win the coming war against Flag of Germany Germany. Thus he moved to secure Britain's protection in the event of an Axis invasion, though he didn't actually align himself with the Allies. Seeking to avoid being drawn into the war without being forced to, Metaxás pursued strict neutrality.

However, this was in vain; Mussolini's plans to create an Italian Roman Empire dictated that Greece had to be subjugated. In the predawn hours of 28 October 1940, Flag of Italy Italy demanded strategic locations in Greece and the right for its armies to march freely through. Metaxás firmly rejected the ultimatum and the Italian forces, massed in Albania, attacked at 6 am. Mussolini's initiative was a surprise to many, even to Hitler whom the Duce had made no effort to inform or coordinate with.

The invasion proved not to be the "week's march" Italian generals thought. Aided by the mountainous terrain of Epirus, where mechanized warfare was impossible, the Greeks repelled the Italians and quickly made their counteroffensive. The constant bayonet attacks that routed the Italians deep into Albania were admired and praised by the Allies, the neutral America and the Soviets alike, as a courageous feat of a freedom-loving people. The Greek successes were the first Allied victories on land against the Axis and the first beacon of hope to the free or occupied peoples, that the seemingly invincible enemy could be defeated.

The war in Albania however reached a stalemate due to the harsh winter and steep terrain. Greece was nearly exhausted by the uneven war, but still no substantial aid was found from its British allies, who had their hands full in North Africa. When the weather cleared in March 1941, the Italians launched their long-planned and well-organized spring offensive (Operation Primavera). This offensive represented a final all-out effort, aiming to end the war with a single blow striking in the center of the Greek lines. It was a complete failure; multiple attacks of numerous Italian infantrymen, supported by some of the most densely concentrated artillery barrages and aerial bombardments of the war, were repulsed one after the other. There were no gains whatsoever from the offensive. Mussolini discretely admitted his inability to win the war against little Greece.

Seeing his ally's fruitless efforts to subjugate Greece, Hitler invaded Greece on the 6th of April 1941, mainly to clear Germany's rear in the Balkans from British presence, in preparation for Operation Barbarossa. The Wehrmacht fared much better than the Italians. Taking advantage of Greece's sparsely defended Bulgarian border and the quick capitulation of Flag of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia, they managed to break through and take by 7th of April the strategic port-city of Thesssalonike. Despite the rush arrival of British Empire's troops, by April 28th the mainland country was completely overrun. The island of Crete remained the last allied stronghold; it too fell to the Germans after a massive airborne attack by June, though the German paratroopers suffered disproportional casualties.

During the three-year triple Occupation (Germany-Italy-Bulgaria) came the forming of the Greek Resistance, one of the largest resistance movements per population ratio in Europe and of the most effective. German occupation forces pillaged the country's wealth, natural resources and industry, causing hundreds of thousands of deaths from famine and executions. Eventually the Germans retreated from Greece in early October 1944 due to the Soviet advance in the Balkans, leaving behind a pile of ruins and a devastated country.

At the time of the liberation, the Greeks were in a state of extreme political and ideological polarization. Fights between the democratic and communist resistance organizations were on the rise in a civil war yet to be declared, and the communists seemed to prevail. In December 1944 a massive battle erupted in the heart of Athens between the leading communist organization EAM/ELAS and British occupation forces, backed by local 'security battalions' (former Nazi collaborators). The British managed to drive the communists off the capital. The Greek Civil War fully erupted in 1946, between the communist forces and the pro-western ones. The United States were quick to give all necessary support to the pro-west royalists for the fight against the communists. The conflict was the most fierce and bloody in the modern history of Greece, and left deep wounds in the country. It ended with the communist's defeat in 1949 and the preservation of Greece in West’s sphere of influence. As a historical event, the Greek civil war is regarded the first proxy war instigated by the two rising blocks of the globe, marking the begining of the Cold War.

Events[edit]

Main article: Greek events

Politics[edit]

Ideology[edit]

Greece starts 1936 as a non-aligned country with no elections to be held. The ruling party is the authoritarian 'Kómma Ton Eleutherofrónon' Party, led by Ioánnis Metaxás.

National Spirits[edit]

Greece starts with no National Spirits.

Political parties[edit]

Political parties, 1936
Id. Party name Popularity Leader Ruling
Democratic Laïkòn Kómma 10.00% Konstantinos Tsaldaris No
Communist Kommounistikó Kómma Elládas 2.00% Markos Vafiadis No
Fascist Ethniki Enosis Ellados 23.00% Georgios Kosmidis No
Non-Aligned Kathestós Metaxá 65.00% Ioannis Metaxas Yes
Id. Party name Popularity Leader Ruling
Political parties, 1939
Democratic Laïkòn Kómma 10.00% Konstantinos Tsaldaris No
Communist Kommounistikó Kómma Elládas 2.00% Markos Vafiadis No
Fascist Ethniki Enosis Ellados 23.00% Georgios Kosmidis No
Non-Aligned Kathestós Metaxá 65.00% Ioannis Metaxas Yes

Diplomacy[edit]

Greece has a core state claim on Turkish owned eastern Thrace and the Italian held Dodecanese. Bulgaria on its part has claims οn Greek owned western Thrace. As a result, relations with these three countries are negative.

Greece isn't a member of any alliance.

Economy[edit]

Laws[edit]

Conscription Law Economy Law Trade Law
Limited Conscription.png Limited Conscription
  • 2.5% Recruitable population
Civilian Economy.png Civilian Economy
  • 30% Consumer Goods factories
  • –30% Factory construction speed
  • +30% Factory (type) conversion cost
Export Focus.png Export Focus
  • 50% Resources to market
  • –5% Research time
  • +10% Factory/Dockyard output
  • +10% Construction speed

Resources[edit]

Oil.png Oil Rubber.png Rubber Steel.png Steel Aluminum.png Aluminum Tungsten.png Tungsten Chromium.png Chromium
0(0) 0(0) 24(12) 58(29) 20(10) 68(34)

The numbers in parentheses represent the available resources. Depending on trade law, a certain amount of the originally extracted resources is traded away.

For its small size and limited industry Greece has an access to substantial resources. Its steel,aluminum and tungsten mines will ensure that early arms production demands are met, as well as capital ships and advanced tanks in late game. In early game Greece exports many resources to several non-aligned countries around the world, like Argentina or China, and therefore gains some precious civilian factories. At start there are only 10 convoys available.

Industry[edit]

4 Military factoryMilitary Factories 1 Naval dockyardNaval Dockyard 8 Civilian factoryCivilian Factories

By 1936 the Greek industry is rather small and not very capable to meet excesive military demands. This lack is one of the first things the player must handle. There are only 10 empty building slots.

National Focus[edit]

Greece is not a major country and therefore shares the common generic focus tree which covers five areas: Army, Aviation, Navy, Industry, and Politics.

Military[edit]

Greece is a small state and so its starting military isn't anything special. The army is smaller than its neighbors’ Flag of Turkey Turkey and Flag of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia, and only a fraction of the armies of the major powers. Furthermore, the country's extensive coastline, borders and, more importantly, the proximity of two major powers could force the army to stretch its lines thin. The navy is technologically outdated but larger than the Turkish and Yugoslavian counterpart. Nevertheless, it's hopelessly small against the Italian Regia Marina or the British Mediterranean Fleet, both potential enemies. The country also completely lacks aircraft which leaves it exposed to enemy air superiority and strategic bombings. The greek population is just 6.28 M and the manpower reserves by 1936 are merely 28.000.

On Greece's advantage, its terrain is mountainous and ideal for defence. Minor forts in the mountainous borders would prove very valuable and give invading armies a hard time, especially to enemy armor. Its a great choice for an outnumbered player on the defensive.


Army[edit]

1936 state:

9NATO infantry.pngInfantry Divisions 3 NATO mountain.png Mountain Divisions 1NATO cavalry.pngCavalry Division

Total: 13 divisions | Manpower.png Manpower Used: 123.5 K

Twelve of these divisions are located in the Greek mainland and one in the island of Crete. The infantry divisions are relatively large in size, with 9 infantry battalions each, while the mountain divisons have 12. The army at 1936 suffers nonetheless of a shortage of 6 K infantry equipment.

Alternative Division Names:

  • Infantry Division: Merarchia Pezikou
  • Cavalry: Merarchia Ippikou
  • Mountaineers:Oreini Merarchia Pezikou
  • Marines: Merarchia Pezonafton
  • Airborne/Parachute Division: Aerometaferomeini Merachia
  • Motorized: Mechanopoiemeni Merarchia Pezikou
  • Mechanized: Mechanokineti Merarchia Pezikou
  • Armored Division: Tethorakismeni Merarchia
  • National Guard Brigade: Taxiarchia Ethnofrouras

Navy[edit]

1936 state:

Capital ships 1936
Heavy Cruiser.png
1 Heavy Cruiser
Screens and Submarines 1936
Light Cruiser.png
1 Light Cruiser
Destroyer.png
8 Destroyers
Submarine.png
6 Submarines

Total: 16 Vessels

Manpower.png Manpower used: 5.3 K

The Royal War Navy (Vasilikó Polemikó Naftikó) is a small force of only limited use. Though by 1936 is the largest of the Balkan nations, the Greek navy is dwarved by the unmatched maritime strength of Flag of Italy Italy and the Flag of United Kingdom United Kingdom.

Air Force[edit]

1936 state:

No No Planes

Manpower used:0

Strategies and guides[edit]

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